The game ends when the blue team has successfully interdicted the smuggler in possession of the illegal goods, or when the red team has successfully delivered the illegal goods to the buyer.
Step 1 – Divide into red and blue teams. The teams establish command centers on opposite sides of the room. Each team takes a map and markers for planning. The game board remains in the center of the room.
Step 2 – Roll dice to select the climate. An even number selects a dry season; an odd number selects a monsoon season.
Step 3 – The blue team places outposts, checkpoints and towers on the board according to the game resource scenario selected by the facilitator. These pieces are visible to the red team.
- For each outpost, the blue team secretly selects up to 2 locations for monitoring and observation, which are marked by blue rings on their map.
- If allowed by the game resource scenario, blue team secretly marks on its map a limited number of sensors along the border locations.
- In addition, the blue team places patrol vehicles on the board in their starting position. Four of the patrol vehicles must start at outposts, and the blue team selects the starting position for the other patrol vehicles. Each patrol vehicle contains a foot patrol that can be unloaded for movement on foot. While the foot patrol is in or transferring to/from the vehicle, the piece remains next to the car piece on the same space.
Step 4 – The red team selects a smuggling scenario card and begins devising a strategy to deliver the illegal goods to the buyer. The red team receives up to 4 game pieces, for placement on the game board when required, and secretly decides on a starting point (possible entry points are marked by red ring icon on the map). The red team begins the game by secretly selecting first move for the smuggler, the partner and/or the decoys and recording the locations on the game sheet. This information should be kept secret from the blue team at all times (unless disclosure is required by a game rule). For most of the game, the positions of the red team will remain secret and be carefully recorded on the game sheet.
Step 5 – The blue team receives the first piece of intelligence and develops a strategy to detect and interdict the smugglers and/or illegal goods based on terrain, route network and smuggler analysis. The blue team moves all of its pieces on the board and records positions on the game sheet.
Step 6 – The red team and blue team alternate turns until the game is won.
The red team chooses randomly from five different smuggling scenarios. Each scenario dictates the following game elements:
- Smuggled goods
- Origin of goods—Eaestia, Wuestia or the South Sea
- Transport capabilities
- Partner origin
- Defense capabilities
- Buyer city
For each scenario, there are six corresponding intelligence reports to be received by the blue team throughout the game at various intervals.
The blue team achieves an interdiction when any blue piece moves to a space secretly occupied by a red piece. If the red piece is the smuggler with the illegal goods, the game is won by the blue team. If the red piece is a decoy, the hand-off partner or the smuggler after hand-off (no illegal goods), the piece is captured and removed from the game. The blue team receives a bonus piece of intelligence (see section on Intelligence).
In some scenarios, the blue team will require back-up patrol vehicles or foot patrols in the nearby vicinity to make a successful interdiction. The resources required for successful interdiction of a smuggler vary depending on the defense capabilities of the red team:
- No Defense: No back-up required for interdiction
- Pistols: One back-up patrol vehicle or foot patrol within a radius of 14 cm required for interdiction
- Armed Escorts: Two backup patrol vehicles or foot patrols within a radius of 14 cm required for interdiction or within one space of the captured red piece, whichever is further.
The modes of transportation have unique features:
- Pack animals – can use trails and dirt roads and use river route during dry season
- Foot patrol – can use trails and dirt roads and use river route during dry season
- Boats – can use the river route during a monsoon season
- Pick-up trucks – can use dirt roads and highways
- Patrol vehicles – can use dirt roads and highways and carry one foot patrol
The blue team moves the patrol vehicles and foot patrols on the board. The blue team starts the game with all foot patrols situated inside patrol vehicles. The red team plays up to 4 moving pieces—the smuggler, hand-off partner and up to 2 decoys, depending on the smuggling scenario. The locations of the red team pieces are kept secret, unless a game rule requires their disclosure.
Each space on the game board is marked with number and a location icon indicating the type of route—trail, river, dirt road or highway. At each turn, the blue and red teams must move each of their pieces one space and record the locations on the game sheet. No moving piece may stay in the same space for more than one turn—unless they are changing mode of transportation, transferring foot patrol to/from a patrol vehicle or conducting a hand-off of illegal goods.
The route types vary in terms of speed (more or less number of spaces relative to distance). If traveling on a highway (least spaces and fastest routes), pieces are only required to stop on highway locations—marked by the specific icons (for highway: icons shaped like frames).
If a player wishes to change from one route type to another, the player must stop on the space for the new route type and change the mode of transportation if required. A change in transportation mode—e.g. from pack animal to pick-up truck for the red team or the transfer of a foot patrol to a patrol vehicle—costs 1 turn. The routes require different modes of transport:
- River = can only used by a small boat during monsoon season. During dry season, the dry riverbed can be used by pack animals and foot patrols
- Trails = pack animals and foot patrols
- Dirt roads = pack animals, foot patrols, pick-up trucks, cargo trucks and patrol vehicles
- Highways = pick-up trucks, cargo trucks and patrol vehicles
Each space on the board can be occupied by only one patrol vehicle or foot patrol at a time—except when the foot patrol is inside or transferring to/from a patrol vehicle. If any blue piece moves to a space secretly occupied by a red piece, the red piece is captured by the border officials. If the red piece is the smuggler with the illegal goods, the blue team has won the game. If the red piece is a decoy or the smuggler’s partner (no illegal goods), the piece is captured and removed from the game.
Partners and Decoys
In each scenario, the red team smuggler has a partner operating inside the country of Hibernia. The partner originates from a city dictated by the scenario and attempts meet the smuggler for a hand-off of the illegal goods for final delivery to the buyer located in one of the major cities. A hand-off may take place on any board location; the red team may change the planned hand-off location at any point during the game. After the hand-off, the smuggler attempts to return to his home country without being interdicted by the blue team. If the partner is captured by the blue team prior to hand-off, the smuggler must deliver the illegal goods to the buyer for a red team victory.
In some scenarios, the red team has up to 3 decoys at its disposal. At each turn, the red team moves these decoys around to disrupt detection by the blue team. When the blue team receives intelligence on red positions, they will also receive data on modes of transportation and cargo contents. For example, the blue team will be able to see if pick-up truck is empty (unmarked pick-up piece), indicating its role as a decoy.
If a decoy, hand-off partner or original smuggler is caught (without illegal goods), the blue team receives a bonus intelligence data either by rolling one die. The number rolled determines how many turns back that the blue team may view the red team positions. The red team places the appropriate position of all pieces on the board based on records from the game sheet.
Every two turns, the blue team receives an intelligence report from Hibernia’s national intelligence agency. The blue team also benefits from location data gathered from locals. To compensate for poor radio transmission, however, the patrol vehicles or foot patrols must report to outposts regularly to collect location data. To collect this data every five turns, a patrol vehicle or foot patrol must reside at a minimum of 1 outpost. To receive such data more frequently, the blue team may station patrol vehicles or foot patrols at more outposts:
- Two outposts, every four turns
- Three outposts, every three turns
- Four outposts, every two turns
To receive the location data, the required number of patrol vehicles must be located at outposts on the appropriate turn. The blue team rolls both dice to gain intelligence on the positions of the red team from a previous turn. The number rolled on both dice determines how many turns back that the blue team may view the red team positions. The red team places the appropriate position of all pieces on the board based on records from the game sheet. If the number is greater than the number of previous turns, the blue team receives NO intelligence data and has to wait for the next turn (determined by number of patrols at outposts).
If a decoy, hand-off partner or original smuggler is caught (without illegal goods), the blue team receives bonus intelligence data on red team locations either by rolling one die. The number rolled determines how many turns back that the blue team may view the red team positions. The red team places the appropriate position of all pieces on the board based on records from the game sheet. If the number is greater than the number of previous turns, the blue team may view red team positions from the first turn.
Outposts are designed to watch over and safeguard the border and other strategic locations and are marked by a specific icon or game piece. Outposts are manned by border guards around the clock and connected by radio communication with the other outposts. The blue team has 4 permanent outposts and selects the location of additional outposts (if allowed by the resource scenario) at the beginning of the game. These outposts are fixed to these locations throughout the game. A red piece can occupy an empty outpost location, but runs the risk of being captured if a patrol vehicle returns to the outpost prior to its departure.
At the beginning of the game, the blue team secretly selects which locations will be monitored by an outpost and draws a ring around these locations on its map. The outposts vary in terms of their visibility across the terrain:
- O1 and O2 – are located in the forest region of Hibernia and have poor visibility; they are capable of monitoring only one location within a 9 centimeter radius. Any additional outpost placed in this region (western half of Hibernia) will have the same visibility.
- O3 and O4 – are located in the savannah region of and have good visibility; they are capable of monitoring two locations within a 14 centimeter radius. Any additional outpost placed in this region (eastern half of Hibernia) will have the same visibility.
The blue team may change the location(s) to be monitored each turn by drawing a ring on a new location on its map (and erasing previous). Any red piece moving to a monitored location must disclose its position to the blue team. If the blue team changes the location for monitoring during its turn, a red piece residing on this location must disclose its location to the blue team on the red team’s next turn.
Checkpoints and Points of Entry
The red team pieces may pass through point of entry locations undetected given high volumes of traffic as long as the goods are sufficiently disguised or shielded. The blue team has up to two mobile checkpoints at its disposal depending on resource scenario. At the beginning of the game, the blue team chooses the first positions for these checkpoints. The blue team may leave the checkpoints intact or move them to a new location every 3 turns; they are not activated until the end of the red team’s next turn. The red team in possession of illegal goods cannot proceed through the checkpoints without getting caught; they function as a barrier blocking passage through a space on the board.
Detection dogs are deployed with foot patrols and trained to detect and alert on a wide variety of scents and are very effective in tracking the routes of potential smugglers. Detection dogs start the game at an outpost and must accompany a foot patrol at all times
Up to two sets of detection dogs are available to the blue team only in a medium or high resource game as a substitute for other resources. These dogs can pick up the trail of potential smugglers, partners and/or decoys within a 6 centimeter radius. If a piece belonging to the red team is located within this radius, the location must be disclosed immediately.
Seismic Ground Sensors
Unattended seismic ground sensors are a remote monitoring system designed to detect movement in forested and mountainous border areas and can be placed on locations near the border or in areas with challenging terrain. All information received by sensors goes to the outposts where a common operating picture for border security is shared across all border security guards. The information generated by sensors is depicted on computer screens as a geospatial map and border entries are tracked in real-time.
The timeliness of information is affected by quality of communications between outposts and border patrols. Once information is received, border patrols can be immediately dispatched in response to any detected border entry or movement in a specific area. Rapid installation of ground sensors makes their relocation possible and allows for adaptive response in changing environments and tactically critical operations.
Sensors are available to the blue team only in a high resource game scenario as a substitute for other resources. If this option is selected, the blue team may secretly place ground sensors at any four locations on its map (by drawing an x on the location):
- Sensors may not be located within 9 centimeters of the border along the river from location 1 to location 41 as this region is a protected wilderness area.
- Sensor locations are marked secretly on the blue team’s map and monitored each turn by the facilitator. If the red team lands on a location monitored by a sensor, they must reveal their position after the blue team completes its next turn. The delay in revealing this information is designed to simulate poor communications between the outposts, which collect sensor data, and the border patrols.
- The blue team may move the placement of ground sensors every five turns by erasing previous positions on their map and selecting new locations.
Surveillance towers are designed to create a “virtual fence” on land borders. These towers are equipped with advanced surveillance technology including advanced communications, broadband wireless access points, radar, long-range cameras, thermal imaging capabilities and motion detectors. Border security guards can monitor border entries at these towers and assess threats using long-range cameras and then dispatch patrols accordingly. Surveillance towers are not currently designed to be mobile; they will remain in locations selected at the start of the game.
Surveillance towers are available to the blue team only in a high resource game scenario as a substitute for other resources. If this option is selected, the blue team may place two towers on the board at the beginning of the game. The range of the towers vary in terms of their visibility across the terrain:
- Surveillance towers may not be located within 9 centimeters of the border along the river from location 1 to location 41 as this region is a protected wilderness area.
- A tower located in the forest region of Hibernia would have less visibility; they are capable of monitoring all locations within a 9 centimeter radius.
- A tower located in the savannah region of Hibernia would have good visibility; they are capable of monitoring all locations within a 14 centimeter radius.
The views expressed in this blog are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the National Defense University, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.